The town of Middleboro (now Middleborough) was incorporated in 1669, settled by a group of men from Plymouth. The first meetinghouse was built in 1680, and the First Church of Christ (also called the "Church at the Green") was officially organized in 1694 following the Articles of Christian Faith laid down by John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrim Church in Leyden, Holland.
The present building, built in 1828 and designed by architect James Sproat, is the fourth meetinghouse of the church. Membership waned during the denominational reorganization of the early 20th century, but has revived significantly starting under the leadership of Rev. Manfred Kohl in the 1970s. The current church is known as the First Congregational Church at the Green and is a member of the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference (CCCC).
The collections below include two volumes of church records, dating from 1707-1821 and 1745-1816 respectively, as well as a series of relations of faith and other documents related to individual parishioners (1724-1865). Also included are a large number of sermons preached by resident ministers Rev. Peter Thatcher and Rev. Sylvanus Conant between 1737 and 1779.