Originally named Boggastow in Nipmuck Territory, then part of Medfield, Medway was settled in 1657 when an increasing number of colonists settled the land west of the Charles River. The settlement grew enough that by 1712 the Massachusetts General Court was petitioned to create a separate town; Medway was incorporated on October 25, 1713 and the decision to immediately build its own church was made at town meeting on November 23, 1713.
Until the church's construction was finished, services were held by Reverend David Deming at Peter Adams's house. The Church of Christ, later known as First Church of Christ, was organized on October 7, 1714. A subscription, led by Jonathan Plimpton, raised a noon house in 1730. In 1749 the first meetinghouse burned. In 1748 Medway divided into eastern and western precincts with First Church of Christ in the eastern precinct and Second Church organizing in 1750 in the western precinct. A large undevelopable tract of land known as The Black Swamp divided the two. The section known as East Medway separated in 1885 to form the town of Millis; First Church of Christ Medway is physically located in modern day Millis, Massachusetts.